American International Journal of Biology and Life Sciences https://www.acseusa.org/journal/index.php/aijbls American Center of Science and Education en-US American International Journal of Biology and Life Sciences 2641-5615 Ecological Mechanism of Dinosaur Extinction https://www.acseusa.org/journal/index.php/aijbls/article/view/140 <p>To analyze the reasons for the extinction of dinosaurs by applying the elimination methods, to exclude the factors that could not cause the worldwide extinction of the dinosaurs. At last obtain a conclusion that because the Ice Age had come on the Earth and caused the changing of climate that it had been becoming cold and arid from warmth and moist, and caused the <a href="https://www.baidu.com/link?url=t_R3YCM18s1HbMcgdLCRrtwfT1VEU6doGYle44oeHA6NGcAj2CEcoAoh-SXG0C6VRfGDNlPRWzX4WFVVAReAEbS-gGubncja4TmWWK2I0_u&amp;wd=&amp;eqid=ce59c5db00303363000000045e6bb98c">phyto-group</a> had been changing, which the Pteridophyte and gymnosperm groups fell off or died out, but the angiosperm groups had been developing and expanding. The characters of photosynthesis of producers of the biosphere had been becoming to the seasonal and regional from the perennial and global, the total of oxygen had reduced sharply in the atmosphere, the density of oxygen had declined, and finally affected the breath of dinosaurs, and led to the extinction of dinosaurs. And as the main producers of biosphere, the pteridophyte and gymnosperm groups had fallen off or died out were the mainly reasons for the creature’s extinction at the later of the Cretaceous period.</p> Huai Tang Gu ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-03-19 2020-03-19 2 1 1 5 10.46545/aijbls.v2i1.140 Antioxidant Potential of Morinda Lucida and Psidium Guajava Extracts and Actions Against Paracetamol- Induced Kidney and Liver Injuries in Rats https://www.acseusa.org/journal/index.php/aijbls/article/view/141 <p>Antioxidant agents of plants origin have continued to attract interest because of the potential they hold in the maintenance of human health accompany with their minimal side effects. The present study sought to evaluate the comparative free radical scavenging activities of ethanol extracts of air dried <em>Morinda lucida</em> leaves (EMLL) and <em>Psidium guajava</em> leaves (EPGL) by measuring their ability to scavenge 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, nitric oxide (NOˉ) radical, 2,2 azinobis-( 3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS*), and inhibit lipid peroxidation (LPO). Antioxidant activities of the extracts were also determined in the plasma of the rats fed with the extracts by assaying for antiradical activity against DPPH and NO radicals <em>in vitro</em>. <em>In vivo</em> antioxidant effects of the extracts were also evaluated in paracetamol treated rats. Twenty rats were randomly divided into four groups for this study. Group 1 received normal feed as control, group 2 received 14.30mg/kg b.w of paracetamol by gavage, groups 3 and 4 received 400mg/kg b.w of EMLL and EPGL each for 7 days plus paracetamol on the 8<sup>th</sup> day respectively. Catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities and malondialdehyde (MDA) status were assayed for in the kidney, liver and serum. Histopathological examinations of liver and kidney were also carried out. The results showed that EMLL and EPGL exhibited free radical scavenging ability in dose dependent manner towards DPPH, NO, ABTS radicals as well as inhibition of LPO. The results of evaluation of the antioxidant potentials of the extracts while in the plasma showed that they were associated with free radical scavenging activity <em>in vivo</em>. Paracetamol treatment caused significant (p&lt;0.05) decreases in SOD and CAT activities, and marked increase (p&lt;0.05) in MDA levels when compared with the control. However, compared with paracetamol only group, the extracts caused significant (p&lt;0.05) increase in SOD and CAT activities and decreased MDA levels. Histopathological analysis of kidney and liver showed that the extracts were able to offer protection against paracetamol-induced kidney and liver injuries. The extracts therefore have strong antioxidant and cytoprotection abilities.</p> Fakoya Akindele Fredrick O. Obi ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-03-19 2020-03-19 2 1 6 17 10.46545/aijbls.v2i1.141 Rubidium Efflux Assay for the Determination of Calcium Activated Potassium Channel Activity https://www.acseusa.org/journal/index.php/aijbls/article/view/208 <p>Rubidium efflux assay using flame atomic absorption spectrometry is employed in analyzing potassium channel activity. Calibration using standards of known R &nbsp;concentrations (10 - 100µM) in tubes was done at the beginning and end of each analysis. R &nbsp;standard curves were constructed from the data obtained from the analysis of the R standards in both the tubes and 96 well plates. HEK293 cells expressing the alpha subunit of BK channel were incubated with R &nbsp;for 4 hours after which the cells were washed and then treated with higher concentrations of KBS (50mM / 80mM) or NS1619 (0.003 - 100µM) for 10 minutes. The supernatant was removed and the cells lysed with 0.1%v/v triton. The percentage efflux was then determined from values obtained after analyzing the supernatant and lysate using flame atomic absorption spectrometer. The results showed that there was consistency during each analysis as the R &nbsp;standard curves constructed from the data obtained overlapped with no significant difference indicating precise calibration and internal validation. For the loaded cells (un-treated), the average concentration of R &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;in the supernatant was 14.47µM while that in the lysate was 56.24µM and statistical analysis showed there was a significant difference with p&lt;0.0001. The treated cells with higher concentrations of KBS in comparison with 5.4mM KBS gave a percentage increase in R efflux of 47.8% for50mM KBS with significant different of p&lt;0.0001 and 80.11% increase with significant different of p&lt;0.05 for 80mM KBS. The treated cells with 0.1, 0.01 and 0.003µM NS1619 gave a percentage increase in efflux of 13.98%, 29.95% and 23.69% respectively. This research indicated the viability of using flame atomic absorption spectrometry for rubidium efflux assay to test for compounds activating effect on BK channel.</p> Zainab Gambo Ibrahim Hussein A Saad Elrewey ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-08-07 2020-08-07 2 1 18 27 10.46545/aijbls.v2i1.208 Bactericidal, Antioxidant Activity and In Silico Analysis of Phytochemicals Derived From Selected Plants of Solanaceae Family https://www.acseusa.org/journal/index.php/aijbls/article/view/213 <p>A diverse range of active therapeutic constituents i.e. antioxidants from medicinal plants of <em>Solanaceae</em> family are responsible for anticancer &amp; antibacterial activity. The study was aimed to investigate phytochemicals i.e. alkaloids, phenols, tannins, flavonoids, saponins, glycosides, and steroids qualitatively in selected plants of <em>Solanaceae </em>family. Total phenolic and flavonoid content of the aqueous extracts of the plants were determined quantitatively by the Folin-Ciocalteus reagent method and modified Aluminium Chloride assay respectively.Flavanoids present in the extracts of <em>Solanumnigrum</em>(fruit and leaf), <em>Daturainoxia</em> (leaf) and <em>Capsicum annum</em> (fruit) samples were 0.39 ± 0.030, 0.42 ± 0.020, 0.51 ± 0.04, 0.34± 0.030µgmL<sup>-1</sup> respectively, whereas phenolic contents were 94± 1.2, 107± 1.5, 96± 1.3, 87± 1.9 mg chlorogenic acid equivalent respectively. The aqueous and ethanolic extracts of <em>S. nigrum</em>, <em>D. inoxia</em> and <em>C. annum</em> showed bactericidal activity against strains of <em>Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia</em> and <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> with (MIC)2mgmL<sup>-1</sup> and 5mgmL<sup>-1</sup>. Highest free radical scavenging of DPPH activity 81.3% was exhibited by 2mgmL<sup>-1</sup>methanolic extract of <em>D. inoxia. </em>Docking of Murine with Saponin, Flavone, phenol showed hydrogen bond of length 2.47 Å, 1.98 Å, 2.285 Å respectively while two H-bonds with 1.96 and 2.56 Å bond lengths of alkaloids. Representative trends and in silico assay results explain the synergism among flavonoids, alkaloids, and phenols. The phytochemicals provide antibacterial activity, antioxidant property as well as anti-cancerous bioactive compounds such as alkaloids and tannins, justifying their therapeutic efficacy in the field of cancer medicine.</p> Ambreen Aisha Arooj Arshad Saihah Goher Mazhar Iqbal ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-08-20 2020-08-20 2 1 28 41 10.46545/aijbls.v2i1.213 Perception and Barriers to Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission (PMTCT) of HIV among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinic in Urban Maternity, Bauchi State, Nigeria https://www.acseusa.org/journal/index.php/aijbls/article/view/226 <p>Globally HIV pandemic remains an issue of major concern to government, health practitioners, policy makers and researchers. HIV can be transmitted from mother to child either during pregnancy, labor, delivery or breastfeeding; presently developing countries including Nigeria accord importance to prevention of mother to child transmission. Despite this effort and commitment to the provision of access to prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) drugs services in Nigeria, statistics have shown that annual HIV positive births are recorded in larger figures in Nigeria. On this basis, this&nbsp; study aimed to examine the perception of and barriers to prevention of HIV mother to child transmission (PMTCT) among antenatal mothers&nbsp; in urban maternities in Bauchi state, investigating the level of PMTCT services perception, establishing the extent to which PMTCT services are used, and barriers to the use of PMTCT services in the state. The study used a narrative approach and description applying percentages and frequencies using five point likert scales to get responses from the respondents. Data was collected and analysed and the findings reveal a positive perception of prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV and that positive women are ready to take ARV drugs to end the pandemic. It also showed that 90% of the respondents had good knowledge of HIV transmission mechanisms. The PMTCT program revealed good knowledge of MTCT prevention. We recommend that regular assessment of the PMTCT program should be conducted for program sustainability and scale up. HIV positive mothers should continue to receive ARV in pregnancy and postpartum period, reinforce joint action of all stakeholders to reach those women who are positive to achieve the PMTCT national target and religious leaders should preach to their followers to voluntarily have HIV testing in order to know their status.</p> Saba’atu Elizabeth Danladi Elochukwu Ebunoluwa Ukatu Osita Samuel Okonkwo Oruayefe Agatha Upaka Shakirat Ganiyu Oyindolapo Iliya Sarki Dongs ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-08-28 2020-08-28 2 1 42 49 10.46545/aijbls.v2i1.226