Antioxidant Potential of Morinda Lucida and Psidium Guajava Extracts and Actions Against Paracetamol- Induced Kidney and Liver Injuries in Rats
Antioxidant agents of plants origin have continued to attract interest because of the potential they hold in the maintenance of human health accompany with their minimal side effects. The present study sought to evaluate the comparative free radical scavenging activities of ethanol extracts of air dried Morinda lucida leaves (EMLL) and Psidium guajava leaves (EPGL) by measuring their ability to scavenge 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, nitric oxide (NOˉ) radical, 2,2 azinobis-( 3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS*), and inhibit lipid peroxidation (LPO). Antioxidant activities of the extracts were also determined in the plasma of the rats fed with the extracts by assaying for antiradical activity against DPPH and NO radicals in vitro. In vivo antioxidant effects of the extracts were also evaluated in paracetamol treated rats. Twenty rats were randomly divided into four groups for this study. Group 1 received normal feed as control, group 2 received 14.30mg/kg b.w of paracetamol by gavage, groups 3 and 4 received 400mg/kg b.w of EMLL and EPGL each for 7 days plus paracetamol on the 8th day respectively. Catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities and malondialdehyde (MDA) status were assayed for in the kidney, liver and serum. Histopathological examinations of liver and kidney were also carried out. The results showed that EMLL and EPGL exhibited free radical scavenging ability in dose dependent manner towards DPPH, NO, ABTS radicals as well as inhibition of LPO. The results of evaluation of the antioxidant potentials of the extracts while in the plasma showed that they were associated with free radical scavenging activity in vivo. Paracetamol treatment caused significant (p<0.05) decreases in SOD and CAT activities, and marked increase (p<0.05) in MDA levels when compared with the control. However, compared with paracetamol only group, the extracts caused significant (p<0.05) increase in SOD and CAT activities and decreased MDA levels. Histopathological analysis of kidney and liver showed that the extracts were able to offer protection against paracetamol-induced kidney and liver injuries. The extracts therefore have strong antioxidant and cytoprotection abilities.
Adeneye, A. A and Agbage, E.O (2008): Pharmacological evaluation of oral hypoglycemic and antidiabetic effects of fresh leaves ethanol extract of Morinda lucida benth.In normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Afr. j. Biomed Res. 11: 65-71.
Almroth, B. C. (2008): Oxidative Damage in Fish used as Biomarkers in Field and Laboratory Studies. Department of Zoology/Zoophysiology. Goteborg University Sweden, 74pp.
Ames, B. N; Shigenaga, M. K and Hagen, T. M (1993): Oxidants, antioxidants and degenerative diseases of aging. Proc Natl Acad Sci. 90:7915–7922.
Bakare, A. A (2007): Cytotoxic and genotoxicity effect of medicinal plants pg .44:305-311.
Branen, A. L (1986): Toxicology and Biochemistry of Butylated Hydroxyanisole and Butylated Hydroxytoluene, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 52: 59-63.
Buege, J.A and Aust, S. D (1998): Microsomal lipid peroxidation. Methods in Enzymology. 51: 303-310.
Chance, B and Greenstein, D. S (1992): The mechanism of catalase actions-steady state analysis. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 37: 301- 339.
Chanchal, K.R and Amit, K.D (2010): Comparative evaluation of different extracts of leaves of Psidium guajava Linn for hepatoprotective activity.Pak. J. Pharm. Sci.,23(1): 15-20.
Cohen,G; Dembiec, D and Marcus, J.(1970): Measurement of catalase activity in tissue extracts. Anal. Biochem., 34: 30-38.
Dash, D. K; Yeligar, V. C; Nayak, S. S; Ghosh, T; Rajalingam, D; Sengupta, P; Maiti, B.C and Maity, T. K (2007): Evaluation of hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of Ichnocarpus frutescens (Linn.) R.Br. on paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Trop. J. Pharm. Res. 6: 755 - 765.
Fogha, V.J; Tchamgoue, A. D; Domekouo, U. L. F; Tarkang, P. A and Agbor, G. A (2015): Morinda lucida stembark protects paracetamol induced liver damage. Int. J. Pharm. Sci. Rev. Res. 31: 198 – 204.
Gold, J, R; Li, Y. C Shipley, N, S and Powers, P. K (1990): Improved methods for working with fish chromosomes with a review of metaphase chromosome banding. Journal of Fish Biology. 37 (4) : 563-575.
Grice, H. C (1986): Safety Evaluation of Butylated Hydroxytoluene (BHT) in the Liver, Lung and Gastrointestinal Tract, Food Chem. Toxicol. 24: 1127–1130.
Gutierrez, R.M; Mitchells, and Solos, R.V (2008): Psidium guajava: A review of it's traditional photochemistry and pharmacology. J Ethno pharmacology 117:1-27.
Halliwell, B. and Gutteridge, J. M. C (1998): Free radicals in biology and medicine, London: Oxford University Press.
Hue, R. E. and Padmaja, S. (1993): The reaction of NO with superoxide. Free Radic. Res. Commun., 18: 195–199.
Kinsella, J. E., Frankel, E., German,B., and Kanner, J (1993): Possible mechanisms for the protective role of antioxidants in wine and plant foods. Food Technol. 47: 85–89.
Li, Z; Wang, L; Hays, T. S and Cai, Y. (2008): Dynein-mediated apical localization of crumbs transcripts is required for Crumbs activity in epithelial polarity. J. Cell Biol. 180(1): 31--38.
Mantha, S. V; Kalra, J and Prasad, K (1996): Effects of probucol on hypercholesterolemia-induced changes in antioxidant enzymes. Life Sciences. 58: 503 – 509.
Mantle, D., Eddeb, F and Pickering, A. T (2000): Comparison of relative antioxidant activities of British medicinal plant species invitro. J. Ethno. Pharmacol. 72: 47–51.
Marcocci, L; Maguire, J. J; Droy-Lefaix, M. T and Packer, L (1994): The nitric oxide scavenging property of Ginko biloba extract EGb 761. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 204: 748-755.
Mensor, L. L; Menezes, F. S; Leitao, G. G; Reis, A. S; dos Santos, T. C; Coube, C. S and Leitao, S. G (2001): Screening of Brazilian plant extracts for antioxidant activity by the use of DPPH free radical method. Phytother.Res. 15: 127-130.
Misra, H. P and Fridovich, I (1972): The role of superoxide anion in the autooxidation of epinephrine and simple assay for superoxide dismutase. J. Biol. Chem. 247: 3170 - 3175.
Palmer, R. M. J; Ferrige, A. G and Moncada, S. (1987): Nitric oxide release accounts for the biological activity of endothelium-derived relaxing factor. Nature. 327: 524 – 526.
Qian, H and Nihorimbere, V (2004): Antioxidant power of phytochemicals from Psidium guajava leaf. J. Zhejiang Univ. Sci., 5: 676-683.
Raji, Y.; Akinsomisoye, O. S and Salman, T. M (2005): Anti-spermatogenic activity of Morinda lucida extract in male rats. Asian J. Androl., 2: 405-410.
Re, R; Pellegrini, N; Proteggente, A; Pannala, A; Yang, M and Rice-Evans, C (1999): Antioxidant activity applying an improved ABTS radical cation decolorization assay. Free radic. Biol. Med. 26 (9-10): 1231 – 1237.
Roy, C. K; Karate, J. V and Sad (2006): Hepatoprotective activity of Psidium guajava Linn leave extract .Indian J Exp Bio
Ruberto G and Baratta M (2000): Antioxidant activity of selected essential oil components in two lipid model systems. Food Chem. 69: 167 - 174.
Sabina, E. P; Rasool, M; Vedi, M; Navaneethan, D; Ravichander, M; Parthasarthy, P and Thella, S. R (2013): Hepatoprotective and antioxidant potential of Withania somnifera against paracetamol-induced liver damage in rats. Int. J. Pharm. Pharm. Sci. 5: 648 – 651.
Smith, A and Nigel, J. H (1992): Tropical forest and their crops London Cornell university press.
Sowemimo, A. A; Fakoya, F. A; Awopetu, I; Omobuwajo, O. R and Adesanya, S. A (2007): Toxicity and mutagenic activity of some selected Nigerian plants. J Ethnopharmacol. 113: 427 - 432.
Taylor, P; Beardmore, A. P; Norton, A. J; Osborne, J. P and Watson, M.G (1997): Ginga and ROSAT observations of AO Psc and V1223 Sgr. MNRAS. 289: 349-354.
Tseng, T. H; Kao, E. S; Chu, F. P; Lin-Wa, H. W and Wang, C. J (1997): Protective effect of dried flower extracts of Hibiscus sabdariffa L against oxidative stress in rat primary hepatocytes. Food Chem. Toxicol. 35(12): 1159-1164.
Udem, S. C; Madubunyy, I; Okoye, J. O. A and Anika, S. M (1997): Anti-hepatotoxic effects of the ethanolic extracts of Combretum dolichopetalum root bark and Morinda lucida leaf. Fitoterapia. 68: 21-25.
Uma, N; Fakurazi, S and Hairuszah, I (2010): Moringa oleifera enhances liver antioxidant status via elevation of antioxidant enzymes activity and counteracts paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity, Mal. J. Nutr. 16: 293 – 307.
Valavanidis, A; Vlahogianni, T; Dassenakis, M and Scoullos, M (2006): Molecular biomarkers of oxidative stress in aquatic organisms in relation to toxic environmental pollutants. Ecotoxic of Environ. Saf. 64 (2): 178-189.
Valentao, P., Fernandes, E., Carvalho, F., Andrade, P., B., Seabra, R., M and Bastos, M (2002): Antioxidative properties of cardoon (Cynara cardunculus L.) infusion against superoxide radical, hydroxyl radical and hypochlorous acid. J. agric. Food Chem. 50: 4989–4993.
Wichi, H. P (1988): Enhanced Tumor Development by Butylated Hydroxyanisole (BHA) from the Perspective of Effect on Forestomach and Oesophageal Squamous Epithelium. Food Chem. Toxicol. 26: 717–723.
Zeriri,I; Tadjine, A; Belhaouchet, N; Berrebbah, H and Djebar, M.R (2012): Potential toxicity of an insecticide of the family of carbamates on a bioindicator model of the pollution of earthworm Octodrilus complanatus (Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae). Annals of Biological Research. 3(11): 5367-5373.
Copyright (c) 2020 Fakoya Akindele, Fredrick O. Obi
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.