American International Journal of Agricultural Studies 2020-08-06T23:12:48+06:00 Managing Editorial Board Open Journal Systems Yam Farmers’ Adaptation Practices towards Climate Change Disaster in Cross River State, Nigeria 2020-08-06T23:12:48+06:00 Samuel Tom Elijah Ogonna Olive Osuafor Ogochukwu Cecilia Edeh <p>This paper focused broadly on exploring yam farmers’ adaptation practices towards climate change disaster in Cross River State, Nigeria. The study employed a survey design involving 150 respondents (farmers). Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) regression and descriptive statistics were employed to actualize the objectives while t-test was adopted to test the hypothesis. The results show that some of the socio-economic variables such as; age, number of years in school, farmer’s membership in associations, access to extension facilities and hectarage of farm land significantly influenced farmer’s adoption of climate change adaptation strategies at P&lt;0.05. The result also shows that the strategies adopted by farmers in order of widespread use by farmers were; multiple cropping, crop diversification, multiple planting dates, cover cropping and fertilizer application, irrigation practices, mulching, land fragmentation, tree planting, organic manure and fallowing. The paper recommended that farmers should organise sensitisation programs in their communities to educate themselves on the more effective measures to employ to adapt to climate change in their yam production.</p> 2020-03-08T00:00:00+06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Influence of Inorganic Fertilizer (NPK 15:15:15) and Cacao (Theobroma cacao L) Leaf Litter Application Rates on Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) Performance in the Tropics 2020-08-06T23:12:47+06:00 Onwuchekwa Ojimgba <p>Influence of inorganic fertilizer (NPK 15:15:15) and cacao (<em>Theobroma cacao</em> L.) leaf litter application rates on cowpea (<em>Vigna unguiculata</em> L.) performance in the tropics was studied for 24 months (January, 2017 – December, 2018) at Cocoa Research Institute of&nbsp; Nigeria (CRIN) Ibeku Sub-Station, Umuahia, Nigeria. Three 3 x 3 factorial experiments, each in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replicates/blocks were used to study the responses of cowpea to three NPK&nbsp; 15:15:15 fertilizer rates 0 kg, 500 kg and 1000 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> represented by (<strong>Factor F</strong>) F<sub>0,</sub> F<sub>1</sub> and F<sub>2</sub>, respectively, and cocoa leaf litter rates 0 t, 10 t and 20 t&nbsp; ha<sup>-1&nbsp;&nbsp; </sup>which were also&nbsp; represented by L<sub>o</sub>, L<sub>1</sub> and L<sub>2</sub>&nbsp; (<strong>Factor L</strong>), respectively. The results obtained from the study show that the application of either 10 or 20 t ha<sup>-1</sup> cocoa leaf litter alone or complementary application of either&nbsp; 10 or 20 t ha<sup>-1</sup> cocoa leaf litter plus 500 or 1000 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> NPK 15:15:15 fertilizer&nbsp; significantly increased the various cowpea growth and yield components than the fertilizer rates alone. The treatment without fertilizer and leaf litter, i.e. topsoil only (F<sub>0</sub>L<sub>0</sub>) gave significantly the least cowpea growth and yield components. The highest values were obtained with the application of 1000 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> NPK 15:15:15 fertilizer with 20 t ha<sup>-1</sup> cocoa leaf litter (F<sub>2</sub>L<sub>2</sub>). The cowpea crop performance in terms of growth, yield and yield components over the study periods, 2017 and 2018 were statistically similar. Therefore, the inclusion of leaf litter has greater potential for improving cowpea yield than when fertilizer was used alone.&nbsp; Leaves are potential sources of valuable nutrients providing a high quality of organic matter, which should be returned to the soil.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2020-05-13T00:00:00+06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Influence of Grasscover in Restoring the Properties of Eroded Soils of Umudike, Southeastern, Nigeria 2020-08-06T23:12:46+06:00 Onwuchekwa Ojimgba <p>The influence of grasscover in restoring the eroded soils was carried out in Umudike, Southestern Nigeria. The use of grass has attracted considerable research attention with respect to forage production and erosion control. Little information is available on the influence of this grasscover management on soil physical and chemical properties. Four different grasses namely: <em>Paspalum notatum(PN), Panicum maximum(PM), Axonopus compressus(AC) </em>and <em>Vetiver</em> grass(VG)- <strong><em>Vetiveria zizanioid/es</em></strong>) were used in this study and their influence on eroded soil tested in two locations. This study has shown that the soils planted with the grasses gave significantly (p&lt;0.05) higher results of the physical and some chemical properties than their adjacent open bare soil. In all the parameters considered in this study, the values obtained in soils under <em>Paspalum notatum </em>was higher than those obtained in PM, AC, VG and their adjacent bare soils(BS). The soils under PN had generally lower bulk density, higher total porosity and hydraulic conductivity than other grasses and adjacent open bare soil in both locations. The soil under PN proved best, outperforming PM, VG,and AC in stabilizing soil aggregates. Planting of PN on eroded soil significantly (p&lt;0.05) increased the mean weight diameter from 0.77mm (BSPN1) to 1.31mm (PN1) and 0.82mm (BSPN2) to 1.48mm (PN2) for Locations 1 and 2, respectively. The relative improvement in Location 1 was in the order : PN1&gt;AC1=VG1&gt;PM1&gt;BSVG1=BSPN1&gt;BSAC1=BSPM1. Also, soils under PN had significantly higher values of pH, organic C and organic matter, total nitrogen and available P more than other grasses and their adjacent open soils. The magnitude of increase in Location 1 was in the order : PN1&gt;AC1&gt;PM1=VG1&gt;BSVG1=BSPN1=BSAC1&gt;BSPM1. Location 2 also increased in the same trend. The organic carbon content of PN increased from 0.73%(BSPN1) to 2.89%(PN1) and 0.88%(BSPN2) to 2.91%(PN2) in Locations 1 and 2, respectively. Also, the organic matter content of the soil increased in the same trend as organic carbon content.</p> 2020-05-13T00:00:00+06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Role of Extension Officers in Delivering Agricultural Services to the Small-Scale Farmers, Gezira State, Sudan 2020-08-06T23:12:45+06:00 Adam Elradi M. Ali Mohammed Adam. A. Hamad Mohamed Atta Ali Abdallh Mutasim Ali M. Elagab <p>This research was carried out in Gezira State, Sudan. The objective of this research is to assess the role of extension officers in transferring agricultural services and innovations to the farmers. Field survey was used to collect the data by using structured questionnaire which designed and pre-tested. Secondary data was collected from books, scientific journals and relevant documents. Based on Steven Samson equation the sample size were 36 extension officers selected by using quota sample technique. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used for data analysis depends on descriptive statistics, correlation, and Regression analysis. The findings indicated that the high percentages (47%) of extension officers their experiences between 11 to 15 years and 33% had no training courses. 81% of the respondents had strong-direct links with the farmers, and their source of information of inputs and technical packages was the research centres (75%). The extension officers explained that they had high cost in transferring information to the farmers, required information and more interested partners on the feedback was research institution (83%). Correlation test shown personal characters, business career had significant correlation with the link with the research (.031) the value (R=.359), high significantly correlated between the nature of the relationship with farmers and link with research sig (.001) value of correlation (.534). The results of regression test indicated that the link with research had impact with significant value (.427beat) sig (.049) other partners had no significant. Recommendations: Based on the findings the research recommends: clear direct link for the extension officers with all agricultural partners in order to facilitate the delivery of information to the farmers. Private sector should involve in designing the extension policy and continuing training sessions have to be held to all extension officers.</p> 2020-05-25T00:00:00+06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Level of Sensitization on the Gains of Inclusion Dairy Cattle in Paddy Grazing and Formulated Feeds to End Herders-Farmers Conflict in Northern Nigeria 2020-08-06T23:12:44+06:00 Oyediran Wasiu Oyeleke Omoare Ayodeji Motunrayo Osinowo Oluremi Adebisi Ogbonna Chinna Claver Onabajo Adebisi Olufemi Elabor AbdulRasheed A. Ameh Godwin <p>This study was borne out of the fact that rice farming and cattle rearing are predominant in the northern parts of Nigeria. But there have been increasing conflicts between farmers and herdsmen particularly in north-central. To address this problem, this study empirically looked at the nexus between sensitization on gains from paddy grazing and farming practices in rice production. Data were collected from three hundred and twenty respondents with the aid of a structured interview guide and field survey. It was found that instead of using organic manure, Urea (55%) and NPK (36.9%) fertilizers were applied on the rice farms. Most (89.4%) of the respondents were not sensitized on the benefits of paddy grazing to the dairy cattle, environment, and soil. Results of the t-test indicated that no significant difference existed in the farming practices for rice production in Niger and Benue States (t = 8.9). The level of sensitization on paddy grazing correlates with the farm practices of the respondents (r = 0.69). This study concluded that respondents did not aware that paddy grazing could lead to increased rice and milk production.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2020-06-07T00:00:00+06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##