Influence of Inorganic Fertilizer (NPK 15:15:15) and Cacao (Theobroma cacao L) Leaf Litter Application Rates on Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) Performance in the Tropics

Main Article Content

Onwuchekwa Ojimgba

Abstract

Influence of inorganic fertilizer (NPK 15:15:15) and cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) leaf litter application rates on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) performance in the tropics was studied for 24 months (January, 2017 – December, 2018) at Cocoa Research Institute of  Nigeria (CRIN) Ibeku Sub-Station, Umuahia, Nigeria. Three 3 x 3 factorial experiments, each in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replicates/blocks were used to study the responses of cowpea to three NPK  15:15:15 fertilizer rates 0 kg, 500 kg and 1000 kg ha-1 represented by (Factor F) F0, F1 and F2, respectively, and cocoa leaf litter rates 0 t, 10 t and 20 t  ha-1   which were also  represented by Lo, L1 and L2  (Factor L), respectively. The results obtained from the study show that the application of either 10 or 20 t ha-1 cocoa leaf litter alone or complementary application of either  10 or 20 t ha-1 cocoa leaf litter plus 500 or 1000 kg ha-1 NPK 15:15:15 fertilizer  significantly increased the various cowpea growth and yield components than the fertilizer rates alone. The treatment without fertilizer and leaf litter, i.e. topsoil only (F0L0) gave significantly the least cowpea growth and yield components. The highest values were obtained with the application of 1000 kg ha-1 NPK 15:15:15 fertilizer with 20 t ha-1 cocoa leaf litter (F2L2). The cowpea crop performance in terms of growth, yield and yield components over the study periods, 2017 and 2018 were statistically similar. Therefore, the inclusion of leaf litter has greater potential for improving cowpea yield than when fertilizer was used alone.  Leaves are potential sources of valuable nutrients providing a high quality of organic matter, which should be returned to the soil.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Article Details

How to Cite
Ojimgba , O. . (2020). Influence of Inorganic Fertilizer (NPK 15:15:15) and Cacao (Theobroma cacao L) Leaf Litter Application Rates on Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) Performance in the Tropics. American International Journal of Agricultural Studies, 3(1), 14–32. https://doi.org/10.46545/aijas.v3i1.15
Section
Articles
Author Biography

Onwuchekwa Ojimgba , Abia State University, Nigeria

Department of Soil Science

Faculty of Agriculture, Abia State University, Uturu, Nigeria

References

Abdelrazzag, A. 2002. Effect of chicken manure, sheep manure and inorganic fertilizers on yield and nutrient uptake by onion. Pakistan J. Biol. Sci., 5: 266 – 8.

Ambasht, R. S. and Ambasht, N. K. 2006. A textbook of plant ecology. 4th edn. CBS Publishers, Inaja. 375pp.

Anikwe, M.A.N., Obi, M.E. and Agbim, N.N. 2003. Effect of crop and soil management practices on soil compatibility in maize and groundnut plots in a Paleustult in Southeastern Nigeria. Netherlands. Plant and soil 253: 457-465.

Arisha, A., Gad, A. and Younes, S.E. 2003. Response of some pepper cultivars to organic and mineral nitrogen fertilizer under sandy soil conditions. Zagazig J. Agric. Res., 30: 1875-99.

Dauda, S.N., Ajayi, F.A. and Ndor, E. 2008. Growth and yield of water melon (Citrullus lanatus) as affected by poultry manure application. J. Agric. Soc. Sci., 4: 121-4.

Fernandes, E. C. M. and Chen, S. H. 2008. Alley Cropping In: Fernandes and Chen (Eds). Tropical Cropping Systems and Agroforestry. The Institute of Terrestrial Ecology/HMSO, London. Pp. 1 – 15.

Heerendra P, Paramjeet S, Meena K and SPS Solanki. 2017. Effect of organic manures and biofertilizer on plant growth, yield and quality of horticultural crops: A Review. Intern. Journ. of Chemical Studies 5(1) 217-221. P ISSN. 2349-8528

Kang, B. T., Grimme, H. and Lawson, T. L. 1985.Alley cropping sequentially cropped maize and cowpea with Leucaena on a sandy soil in Southern Nigeria. Pl. Soil, 83 (3): 433 – 445.

Magnusson, M. 2002. Mineral fertilizers and green mulch in Chinese cabbage (Brassica pekinensis Rupr): effect on nutrient uptake, yield and internal tipburn. Soil Plant Sci., 52: 25-35.

Mbagwu, J.S.C. 1992. Improving the productivity of a degraded ultisol in Nigeria using organic and inorganic amendments. Part 1. Effects on the chemical properties and maize yield. Bioresource Technol. 42, 149-154.

Muller-Samann, K. M. and Johannes, K. 1997. Sustaining growth : Soil fertility management in tropical smallholdings. CTA; GTZ. Transl. : Christine Ernsting and Simon Chaterl.- Weikersheim : Margraf. Pp. 99-186.

Naeem, M., Iqbal, J. and Bakhsh, M. A.A. 2006. Comparative study of inorganic fertilizers and organic manures on yield and yield components of Mungbean (Vigna radiat L.). J. Agric. Soc. Sci., 2: 227-9.

Nordmeyer, H. and Richter , J. 1985. Incubation experiments on nitrogen mineralization in loess and sandy soils. Pl. Soil 83 (3) : 433 – 445.

Odurukwe, S. O. , Anuebunwa, F. O., Iloka, A. W., Udealor, A. and Ibedu, M. A. 1995. Physical environment of south-eastern Nigeria. In: Indigenous fallow and multi-purpose tree and shrub species in the farming systems of southeast zone of Nigeria. A Report of Diagnostic Survey. N.R.C.R.I., Umudike Publications.

Ojimgba, O. (2019). Effect of inorganic fertilizer (NPK 15:15:15) and cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) leaf litter application rates on maize (Zea mays L.) performance in the tropical forest. Agric. Science Res. Journ. Vol. (9) Issue (8): 112-122. ISSN 2026-6073. http://www.resjournals.com/agriculture.science.research.journal/

Ojimgba, O. and Mbagwu, J. S. C. (2007). Evaluation of the Physical and Chemical Properties of an eroded Ultisol and their effects on Maize yield. Journal of the Science of Agric., Food Tech., and the Envt. , Vol 7 (1). Pp 57-64.

Ojimgba, O., Omenihu, A.A. and Chukwu, G.O. 2008. Effects of soil amendments on degraded Ultisol and maize (Zea mays L.) performance in Southeastern Nigeria. Journal of the Science of Agric., Food Tech., and the Environment. 1: 57- 64.

Okeke, A. I. and Omaliko, C. P. E. 1994. Litterfall and seasonal patterns of nutrient accumulation in Dactyladenia barteri (Hook fex. Oliv.). Engl. bush fallow at Ozala, Nigeria. For. Ecol. Manage., 67 : 345 – 351.

Omaliko, C. P. E. and Agbim, N. N. 1983. Forage corn response to rice – mill wastes and fertilizers. J. Environ. Qual., 12 (3) : 320 – 324.

Opara-Nadi, O. A. 2000. Soil Resources and Agricultural Productivity in Nigeria. In: Food and Fibre Production in the 21st Century. Nwaigbo, L. C., Ukpabi, U. H. and Anene, A. (eds) . Proceedings of the First Annual Conference of the College of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Abia State University held on the 10th -13th September, 2000.

Ouda, B.A. and Mahadeen, A. Y. 2008. Effect of fertilizers on growth, yield, yield components, quality and certain nutrient contents in broccoli (Brassica oleracea) Int. J. Agri. Biol., 10:672-32.

Prabhakaran Nair, K. P. and Ghosh, G. N. 1984. Efficiency of recycled nitrogen from residues of maize (Zea mays) , soyabean (Glycine max) , moong (Vigna radiate) on wheat (Triticum aestivum) grain yield. Plant Soil, 82 (1) : 125 – 132.

Salau, O. A., Opara-Nadi, O. A. and Swennen, R. 1992. Effects of mulching on soil properties, growth and yield of plantain on a tropical Ultisol in south-eastern Nigeria. Soil Tillage Res. 23 : 73 – 93.

Steel , R. G. D. and Torrie , J. H. (1980). Principles Procedures of Statistics. A Biometric Approach . Mc Graw – Hill Publications, New York, 633 pp.

Young, A. 1989. Agroforestry for soil conservation. CAB International, UK, p. 26.